Giles H. Roditi 1
1Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
We must now identify 'at risk 'patients for whom high quality MRI without contrast will often suffice, if not then alternative imaging options must be explored. Vascular disease is the major area of concern since it is the main disease burden and a source of high contrast dose for MRA, hence non-contrast MRA has had a resurgence. Ultrasound is useful for carotid disease but less successful for other vascular territories. CTA can be employed in patients on dialysis but has the problem of contrast nephropathy for those not yet dialysis dependent, the danger of which is likely greater than that of low dose cyclic GBCA enhanced MRA.