Andrew B. Holbrook1,2, Juan M. Santos3,4, Elena Kaye1,3, Viole Rieke1, Kim Butts Pauly1
1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 2Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 3Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 4HeartVista, Inc., Los Altos, CA, USA
We have integrated a high speed, high resolution pulse sequence with referenceless MR thermometry to produce temperature images of high intensity focused ultrasound ablations in real time for therapies in the liver. The sequence was tested in a moving phantom. Maximum temperatures were compared to an identical sonication in a stationary phantom, and the systems real time reconstruction was also tested. The moving phantom temperature data showed good agreement with the stationary phantom, as did its shape. Finally, in-vivo tests in a patient abdomen were performed to verify that minimal temperature rises from phase noise and blood flow occurred.