Verena Hoerr1, Lori Zbytnuik2, Paul Kubes2, Hans Vogel1
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
In mouse-models of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, serum was investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy and distinguished by statistical pattern recognition techniques. By combining the results of the in vivo study with footprints of culture experiments, potential bacteria-specific biomarkers were identified. We also compared serum metabolite changes caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) treatment and E. coli infection in both wild-type and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) deficient mice. In TLR4 deficient mice the immune response upon LPS treatment was suppressed. Taken together, our approach allows us to distinguish between innate immune and direct bacterial effects during an infection.