Daniel Coman1,2, Garry Kiefer3, Douglas L. Rothman, 2,4, Dean A. Sherry5,6, Fahmeed Hyder, 2,4
1Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States; 2Quantitative Neuroscience with Magnetic Resonance (QNMR), Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States; 3Macrocyclics, Dallas, TX, United States; 4Diagnostic Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States; 5Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States; 6Radiology and Chemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States
Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation of Shifts (BIRDS) represents another alternative to CEST imaging, using resonances from paramagnetic lanthanide-based contrast agents (CAs). Although spatial resolution is high, CEST data are qualitative because the signal attenuation remains relative unless the CA concentration, temperature and pH are known. A typical BIRDS experiment uses high-speed CSI because of favorable relaxation times for CAs. A europium-based CA, EuDOTA-(gly) 4-, exhibits enhanced CEST characteristics while still retaining high sensitivity to temperature variations specific to BIRDS. Here, we illustrate the principles of combining CEST and BIRDS to obtain optimal temperature measurements with improved spatial resolution.