Omkar B. Ijare1, Tedros Bezabeh1, Nils Albiin2, Annika Bergquist2, Urban Arnelo2, Mathias Lohr2, Espen Melum3, Ian C.P. Smith1
1National Research Council Institute for Biodiagnostics, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 2Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Deparment of Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
Regurgitation of pancreatic juice into the biliary tract and the subsequent mixing with bile is frequently observed in patients with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM), which is a potential risk factor for the carcinogenesis of bile duct and gallbladder. The mixing of bile with pancreatic juice is generally diagnosed by measuring the amylase activity in bile. We propose that pancreaticobiliary reflux can be detected by 1H MR spectroscopy as an alternative to the measurement of amylase activity. Moreover, it may be possible to detect non-invasively the regurgitation of pancreatic fluids into the gallbladder using in vivo spectroscopy.