Kevin M. Koch1,
Kevin F. King1, Weitian Chen2, Garry
1Global Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, USA; 2Global Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 3Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
MR capabilities when imaging in the direct vicinity of metallic devices have been substantially improved with the development of 3D-MSI methods. The MAVRIC, SEMAC, and VS-MSI techniques have shown promising clinical capabilities in diagnosing soft-tissue pathology in previously inaccessible regions. Here, we discuss some limitations on how close 3D-MSI, or any technique relying on frequency-encoding, can image near metal in the presence of substantial local induction gradients. The presented analysis and results can aid in explaining residual artifacts in 3D-MSI and in predicting the effective spectral coverage required by the techniques.