Mikko I. Kettunen1, Menna R. Clatworthy2,3, Timothy H. Witney1, De-En Hu1, Brett W. C. Kennedy1, Sarah E. Bohndiek1, Rebeccah J. Mathews2,3, Ferdia A. Gallagher1,4, Ken G. Smith2,3, Kevin M. Brindle1
1Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge & Cancer Research UK Cambridge Research Institute, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom; 2Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom; 3Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom; 4Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and glomerulonephritis (GN) are two common clinical forms of acute kidney injury with different treatment requirements. Currently, there is no non-invasive test to differentiate them. Here we exploited the appearance of malate signals following injection of hyperpolarized [1,4-13C2]fumarate to identify folate-induced ATN. Significantly increased malate signals were observed 18h after folate injection indicating increased necrosis. In contrast, malate signals were not increased in GN model despite the presence of proteinuria in both models. The results suggest hyperpolarized [1,4-13C2]fumarate is a potential non-invasive marker for separating ATN and GN.