Devasuda Anblagan1, Nia W. Jones2, Alexander J. Parker3, George Bugg2, Carolyn Costigan1, Ruta Deshpande2, Lucy Coyne4, Rosanne Aleong5, Neil Roberts6, Zdenka Pausova7, 8, Nick Raine Fenning9, Tomas Paus5, 10, Penny A. Gowland1
1Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom; 2Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom; 3University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom; 4Liverpool Women's Hospital, Liverpool, United Kingdom; 5Rotman Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 6Clinical Research and Imaging Centre, Queens Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; 7Research Institute of the Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 8Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 9School of Clinical Sciences, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom; 10School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Cigarette smoke contains two main compounds: carbon monoxide and nicotine; both cross the placenta into the fetus where they reach levels exceeding those found in the maternal circulation. This has been associated with miscarriage, placenta abruption, placenta praevia, low birth weight and perinatal mortality. In the long-term, maternal smoking during pregnancy appears to increase the probability of respiratory disorders, obesity and behavioral problems. This work studies the effect of maternal smoking on the growth of fetal organs and shows that fetal lungs, kidneys and brain volumes are reduced by maternal smoking during pregnancy.