Jan Fritz1, 2, Roberto B. Sequeiros3, Serban Mateiescu4, John A. Carrino1, Risto Ojala3, Dietrich Grnemeyer4, Philippe L. Pereira, 25
1Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States; 2Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tbingen, Tbingen, Germany; 3Department of Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; 4Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, University of Witten/Herdecke, Bochum, Germany; 5Deptartment of Radiology, SLK-Kliniken Heilbronn, Germany
Musculoskeletal pediatric interventions are frequently performed under X-ray fluoroscopy and computed tomography guidance, but the procedure-related exposure to ionizing radiation raises health concerns. Because of the absence of ionizing radiation, interventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging superbly complies with the ALARA practice mandate, however very little data exist about the efficacy and safety of pediatric MR-guided musculoskeletal procedures. Our data show that a wide variety of pediatric MR imaging-guided percutaneous musculoskeletal diagnostic and therapeutic procedures can be efficaciously performed and are safe for use in clinical practice mandating more vigilant implementation of the ALARA practice mandate in selected pediatric musculoskeletal interventions.