Ashish Gupta1, Mayank Dwivedi2, Abbas A. Mahdi3, Chunni Lal Khetrapal4, Mahendra Bhandari5
1Centre of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Lucknow , UP, India; 2Departments of Microbiology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; 3Department of Biochemistry, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India; 4Centre of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Lucknow, UP, India; 5Henry Ford Hospital System, Vattikuti Urology Institute, Detroit, MI, United States
Quantitative analysis of 682 urine samples from suspected UTI patients, and 50 healthy volunteers was carried out to identify the differential biomarkers between gram negative bacilli (GNB) (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Pr. mirabilis, Citrobacter frundii) and gram positive cocci (GPC) (Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus group B, Staphylococcus saprophyticus) uropathogenic urinary tract infection (UTI) using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Linear multivariate discriminant function analysis (DFA) reveals that 1H NMR measured metabolites can differentiate not only between healthy controls and infected urine samples but also GNB and GPC type of uropathogenic microorganism.