Xian-Feng Shi1, 2, Paul Carlson1, 2, Douglas G. Kondo1, 2, Young-Hoon Sung1, 2, Tracy L. Hellem2, Lauren Forrest2, Seong-Eun Kim3, Chun Zuo4, Eun-Kee Jeong3, Perry F. Renshaw1, 2
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States; 2The Brain Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States; 3Department of Radiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States; 4Brain Imaging Center, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, United States
Synthesis and regeneration of high energy phosphates such as phosphocreatine (PCr) and nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) play an important role in supporting neuronal activity. PCr serves as an energy reservoir in skeletal muscle and brain, while NTP (which is primarily adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) is a direct energy source for metabolic processes. Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion between PCr and ATP. By employing a recently updated phosphorus magnetization transfer, image selected in-vivo spectroscopy (31P MT-ISIS) technique, evaluation of all 31P-containing metabolites and CK reaction rates in human brain for bipolar disorder patients with depression were assessed.