Dual-Echo EPI Sequence for Integrated Distortion Correction in 3D Time-Resolved Hyperpolarized 13C MRI
Benjamin J. Geraghty1,2, Albert P. Chen3, and Charles H. Cunningham1,2
1Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Dept. of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3GE Healthcare, Toronto, ON, Canada
A novel dual echo EPI sequence is proposed for providing a built-in correction for off-resonance in time resolved, volumetric hyperpolarized 13C metabolic mapping with [1-13C]pyruvate. The phase evolution between two echoes was used to correct EPI distortion and improve spatial registration with the underlying anatomy. A correction term obtained from a fully phase encoded dual echo EPI proton reference scan was required to account for odd/even echo asymmetry in the 13C phase maps. Proof-of-concept dual echo EPI in vivo rat data was acquired on a clinical 3T MR scanner and corrected images are presented.
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