Hyperglycemia is common in extremely low-gestational-age neonates (ELGAN) and increases the risk of serious health problems in the neonatal period. However, the long-term effects are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term effects of the recurrent neonatal hyperglycemia on the hippocampal neurochemical profile. Metabolite changes were quantified by in vivo 1H MRS at 9.4T using a rat model of neonatal hyperglycemia. The results of this study indicate that the recurrent hyperglycemia during neonatal period may alter energy metabolism and glutamatergic neurotransmission, which can contribute to delayed hippocampal development and cognitive deficits in ELGANs.