Alfaxalone is suggested to be an optimal anesthetic to examine brain injuries in experimental animals. However, little is known about its impact on neural activity in
anesthetized subjects. In the present study,
adult rhesus monkeys were used to examine its impact on functional connectivity. The results
demonstrate that alfaxalone induces significantly reduced functional
connectivity in the dominant
default-mode network (DMN), inter-hemisphere connectivity in primary
somatosensory cortex and caudate compared to isoflurane. The findings reveal that alfaxalone suppress neural activity more dramatically
than light isoflurane anesthesia in monkeys, suggesting it is ideal for investigating anatomical and microstructural changes in animal models but not good for evaluating neuronal activity with fMRI.