This study aimed to research the relationship between the volume changes of brain and smoking extent/nicotine dependence. A voxel-based morphometry study between smokers grouped by smoking amount and dependence level was conducted. This study demonstrated the volume of many brain areas decreased with the increase in smoking extent and an opposite correlation between some brain areas and smoking dependence was observed. This study indicated that dependence had limited ability to predict smoking-related brain structure changes. A comprehensive assessment of the situation should be consulted, when clinicians make treatments options.