Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with cognitive decline, while prediabetes may already show comparable cognitive decrements. We investigated whether white matter network integrity is associated with prediabetes and/or T2DM in a large population-based cohort study. For calculation of white matter volumes and graph measures, 3T structural and diffusion MRI (dMRI) were performed. Prediabetes had lower clustering coefficient and local efficiency compared to NGM. Communicability was significantly higher in T2DM, but not in prediabetes, which suggests that alternative white matter connections are used to compensate for structural disturbances and white matter decline, which may not be present yet in prediabetes.