There are growing evidences that swimming during gestation has a neuroprotective effect on offspring perinatal brain injuries. The aim of this work was to assess this neuroprotective effect on P3 hypoxic-ischemic model by 1H-MRS and diffusion MRI (DTI and NODDI) at 9.4T. A moderate, but real effect of swimming during gestation on the neurochemical profile 24h after HI was observed. Difference in neurochemical profile between sedentary and swimming rats may lead to a different response to the injury. At long-term, diffusion MRI derived parameters changes following HI were restored in the swimming HI group, providing evidence of a neuroprotective effect.