MR images are widely used to measure brain atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases. However, reliable evaluation of atrophy is hampered by scanner-induced systematic variability. Here, we developed an MR-compatible phantom and analysis software for robust and reliable evaluation of the brain volume loss. The phantom was made using 3D-printing and contains three inflatable brain structures equipped with a precise volume change system. The phantom was imaged at three different clinical 3T MR scanners and images were analyzed by our developed software. This phantom can accurately and robustly provide a selected volume change to mimic a certain disease.