Chemical shift saturation recovery (CSSR) spectroscopy is a method, which is able to assess lung microstructure using 129Xe gas uptake and to discriminate between healthy volunteers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, the absent spatial encoding of standard CSSR spectroscopy poses a limitation of the method for detecting early disease. A method for voxel-based mapping of lung microstructural parameters is proposed. Preliminary data from a study in healthy volunteers and COPD patients employing both CSSR mapping and spectroscopy are presented. Whole-lung median wall thickness and surface-to-volume ratio are highly reproducible and correlate significantly with global values from spectroscopy in COPD patients.