MTsat provides magnetization transfer information less confounded by B1 and T1 inhomogeneities than MTR (largely derived from bound protons within axonal myelin in the brain). The present study measured the reproducibility of MTsat versus MTR, and compared tissue-type contrast for MTsat and MTR in healthy volunteers and patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Quantitative maps were created for histogram analysis, descriptive statistics and sensitivity comparisons. MTsat and MTR showed similar reproducibility but MTsat showed higher tissue contrast. Our data suggest MTsat is a superior biomarker for myelin integrity, with utility for the study of demyelination and remyelinating therapies in multiple sclerosis.