Most smoking cessation attempts result in failure. Damage to the insular cortex disrupts smoking behavior in stroke patients. Neuroimaging studies have shown that chronic smokers had altered functional connectivity (FC) of insular subregions. Here, we further investigated the different FC changes of insular subregions between smokers who quitted successfully and those who relapsed after smoking cessation treatment. We found that smokers who quitted successfully had increased FC of anterior insula, while those who relapse had decreased FC of insular subregions. These novel findings suggest that increased connectivity of insular subregions could imporve likelihood of cessation.