Conventional neuropsychometric tests could not early detect HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) on HIV-patients. More objective indicators with neuroimaging techniques have offered to sub-classify patients with specific symptoms. Significant differences of regional gray matter volumes (rGMV) betweenHIV-positive group and age-matched healthy group was found in our preliminary study. Ten major rGMV well distinguished HIV-positive patients with HAND from those without HAND. Our study showed rGMV might be an indicator to explain for neurocognitive impairments.