Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has not yet been widely studied in thyroid disease diagnosis. Here we investigate the feasibility of DKI in distinguishing thyroid adenoma (TA) from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We found that quantitative measurements provided by DKI were significantly different between TA and PTC. A higher area under the curve of mean diﬀusivity (MD) in discriminating TA from PTC was also observed. We concluded that DKI can be used as a feasible technique and benefit the diagnostic performance in distinguishing between TA and PTC.