HIV infection is associated with loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and the initiation of effective antiretroviral therapy has been associated with increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT). To quantify these changes in the body, MRI was used to image and conduct whole-body composition analysis. VAT was significantly higher in men with HIV infection than control males; there was little difference in females. In general, VAT ratio, the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue, was higher in patients living with HIV (PLWH) than controls. MRI is a quick, radiation-free alternative to DXA and CT in measuring whole-body composition in PLWH.