White matter injury is common in neonates. The most common punctate white matter lesions (PWML) can disappear along with time and are easily missed diagnosis. Since DTI is not sensitive to detect the white matter (WM) microstructural changes in mild PWMLs, DKI may provide more details for capture the WM alterations. This study aims to investigate the utility of DKI in characterizing the WM microstructural variations following mild PWMLs. Our study found that diffusion kurtosis and two-compartment metrics are sensitive imaging markers for characterize the WM microstructural alterations of mild PWMLs, which is associated with reactive gliosis and axonal swelling.