This prospective study examined the relationships between maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy and newborn’s brain white matter development. Healthy pregnant women were recruited at the 3rd trimester. Depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), and anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI). Their newborns underwent an MRI examination of the brain at 2 weeks of age, which included diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate white matter development. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated and correlated with the BDI and STAI scores using tract-based spatial statistics. Negative correlations between FA values and BDI/STAI scores were found in multiple white matter regions, suggesting that depression and anxiety during pregnancy may impact the in utero brain white matter development.