Hyperglycemia (HG) is common in the neonatal period in extremely low gestational age infants. The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and long-term effects of intranasal insulin administration on hippocampal neurochemical profile in a rat model of human perinatal HG. Hypoinsulinemic HG was induced in neonatal rats by injecting streptozotocin on postnatal day P2. Hippocampal neurochemical profiles were assessed at P7 and P56. Preliminary in vivo 1H MRS data demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of intranasal insulin administration for normalizing neurochemical homeostasis in the hippocampus exposed to transient hypoinsulinemic HG in the neonatal period.