Tolga ukur1, Ann Shimakawa2, Huanzhou Yu2, Brian A. Hargreaves1, Bob S. Hu3, Dwight G. Nishimura1, Jean H. Brittain2
1Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 2Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, USA; 3Palo Alto Medical Foundation, USA
There has been renewed interest in non-contrast-enhanced angiography due to the recent discovery of the link between the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Because most non-contrast-enhanced techniques rely on blood flow, the reliability of the generated contrast is compromised in cases of slow flow, such as occluded vessels. On the other hand, flow-independent angiography only relies on the inherent T1, T2 and chemical shift differences of the tissues. 3D complex-sum IDEAL balanced-SSFP can reliably suppress the fat signal. Meanwhile, frequent magnetization preparation coupled with parallel imaging can reduce the long-T1 and muscle signal without compromising the scan efficiency.