1Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; 2Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States; 3Radiology, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; 4Siemens Corporation, Corporate Technology, Baltimore, MD, United States
Venous and lymphatic malformations (VMs/LMs) are diagnostically visualized using T2-weighted fat-suppressed turbo spin echo. Once identified, lesions typically are treated percutaneously using ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance. Treatment is limited in lesions that are deep, lie beneath scar, or within bone. Additionally, almost all patients require multiple treatments, accruing significant exposure to ionizing radiation. Real-time MR-guided intervention serves as a safer alternative, with better visualization of critical structures. Conventional sequences are limited: with blurry, distorted edges (HASTE) or with inferior VM/LM delineation because of poor T2-weighting (SSFP). We present real-time imaging for the VMs/LMs visualization during MR-guided sclerotherapy: Contrast-Prepared SSFP.