Jun Isogai1, Takashi Yamada2, Tomoko Miyata3, Mitsue Miyazaki4
1Shuwa General Hospital, Kasukabe, Saitama, Japan; 2Hasuda Hospital, Hasuda, Saitama, Japan; 3Toshiba Medical Systems Corp., Saitama, Japan; 4Toshiba Medical Research Institute, Vernon Hills, IL, United States
MR venography for the lower extremity has been reported using two-dimensional (2D) time-of-flight (TOF) and direct gadolinium-enhanced MRA. However, TOF methods suffer from limited images, whereas contrast-enhanced methods require a large amount of contrast agent and add a superimposition between arteries and veins. Due to the recent concerns of Gadolinium-related Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF), non-enhanced and non-invasive MRA solutions have gained interest. An anatomical map of complex venous system provides valuable evaluation of lower extremity varicosities related to incompetent perforating veins.