Contrast-Enhanced 4D Flow Imaging with Reduced Fat Signal
Joseph Y. Cheng1, Tao Zhang1, Adam B. Kerr2, Michael Lustig3, John M. Pauly2, and Shreyas S. Vasanawala1
1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 3Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States
Volumetric time-resolved velocity imaging (4D flow) can be used as a single comprehensive sequence to quantify blood flow, evaluate cardiac function, and assess anatomy. However, fat signal can reduce tissue contrast, introduce high-signal-intensity artifacts from motion, and cause errors in velocity quantification. Two approaches are presented for reducing fat signal in contrast-enhanced 4D flow imaging with minimal time penalty. The first approach is a short spectral-spatial RF pulse that reduces fat signal below the level of contrast-enhanced blood pool. The second approach is the introduction of one additional echo with a different TE to separate fat/water for all flow encoding echoes. The performance of these approaches are evaluated in a static phantom study and in patient volunteer studies.
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