This study aimed to measure the BOLD response in the calf muscle in T2DM patients during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia and to study whether T1ρ MR Imaging of calf muscle could differentiate T2DM patients from normal subjects. Twenty-two T2DM patients and twenty age-matched healthy volunteers were performed MR scanning. T1ρ relaxation time and maximal ΔT2* change (ΔT2*max) and time to peak (TTP) were measured. Our results showed that the lower degree of the increase (ΔT2*max and TTP) in calf muscles of DM patients. In addition, T1ρ relaxation time in TA muscle was significant higher in DM patient than in healthy subjects.