Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that causes irreversible damage to the visual system. While elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor, its neurobehavioral effects on the visual system remain unclear. Here we showed that increasing magnitude and duration of IOP elevation resulted in differential effects on the visuomotor behavior and resting-state functional connectivity between visual brain nuclei. In addition, under similar levels of chronic IOP elevation, oral citicoline treatment appeared to ameliorate visual behavioral deficits and functional connectivity decrease in some brain regions. These results suggest new potential mechanistic targets for treatment of glaucoma beyond IOP lowering.