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Abstract #3875

Can sodium triple-quantum signal separate extra- and intracellular signals? –  investigation on HEP G2 liver cells, liposomes and nanoparticles

Michaela A U Hoesl1, Dennis Kleimaier1, Ruomin Hu1, Matthias Malzacher1, Eric Gottwald2, Cordula Nies2, and Lothar R Schad1

1Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany, 2Institute of Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany

Sodium MRI is increasing in popularity albeit the apparent challenges of low SNR and fast bi-exponential decay. Currently, intra- and extra cellular sodium can only be resolved by introducing a chemical shift reagent which is unusable in human studies due to toxicity. There is discussion on whether triple-quantum signal (TQS) could provide a discriminator for resolving intra- and extracellular signal due to motion restriction of sodium ions within the cell. This work investigates the TQS behavior using a triple quantum sequence with time proportional phase increment (TQTPPI) on liposomes, HEP G2 liver cells and nanoparticles to disentangle the reasons for occurring TQS.

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