Low-dose inhalation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides a disease model in humans for development of anti-inflammatory drugs but sensitive methods for assessment of the inflammatory response to LPS are lacking. The feasibility of hyperpolarized 129Xe dissolved-phase imaging and chemical shift saturation recovery (CSSR) was investigated in this setting. The ratio of 129Xe in red blood cells and in tissue/plasma was found to decrease and the capillary transit time derived from CSSR was found to increase after LPS inhalation. These effects are attributed to pulmonary edema and vasodilation. In conclusion, hyperpolarized 129Xe MR is sensitive even for low-dose LPS challenges in humans.