The purpose of our study was to develop and evaluate a generalized CNN-based method for fully-automated segmentation of different MR image datasets using a single set of annotated training data. A technique called cycle-consistent generative adversarial network (CycleGAN) is applied as the core of the proposed method to perform image-to-image translation between MR image datasets with different tissue contrasts. A joint segmentation network is incorporated into the adversarial network to obtain additional segmentation functionality. The proposed method was evaluated for segmenting bone and cartilage on two clinical knee MR image datasets acquired at our institution using only a single set of annotated data from a publicly available knee MR image dataset. The new technique may further improve the applicability and efficiency of CNN-based segmentation of medical images while eliminating the need for large amounts of annotated training data.