Knee MRI protocols usually require 20+ minutes of scan time, leading to great interest in expedited and high-value imaging examinations. Moreover, despite the popularity of quantitative imaging for osteoarthritis, it is not routinely implemented clinically. In this study, we use a 5-minute quantitative double-echo steady-state (qDESS) sequence that produces simultaneous morphological images and T2 relaxation time measurements. We prospectively enhance the slice-resolution of qDESS using deep learning. We show that qDESS provided high diagnostic accuracy compared to both diagnostic knee MRI and surgical findings. Additionally, automatic T2 maps increased reader diagnostic confidence and sensitivity to cartilage lesions.