Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with reduced skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, but a quantitative approach to systematically assess changes in skeletal muscle is lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a multimodal MR method for quantitative assessment of skeletal muscle in patients with CKD compared to normal controls. The study revealed significant changes of T1ρ, intra- and extra-myocellular lipid ratio, ADC, and FA in CKD or dialysis patients. In addition, there was significant correlation between T1ρ and DTI biomarkers. These findings may provide new insights into the impaired skeletal muscle function in CKD patients.