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Abstract #3972

Quantitative susceptibility mapping in water–fat regions using in-phase echoes introduces significant quantification bias

Christof Boehm1, Maximilian N. Diefenbach1,2, Sophia Kronthaler1, Jakob Meineke3, Kilian Weiss4, Marcus R. Makowski1, and Dimitrios C. Karampinos1
1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 2Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany, 3Philips Research Lab, Hamburg, Germany, 4Philips Healthcare, Hamburg, Germany

Gradient echo imaging using in-phase echoes has been proposed to reduce the field-map estimation in water–fat regions to a convex nonlinear least squares problem. However, it is known that the fat spectrum is complex and the definition of in-phase echo times remains problematic. In this work, the in-phase assumption is compared to standard water–fat imaging with respect to field- and quantitative susceptibility-mapping. The in-phase assumption is shown to be associated with quantification bias when subsequently estimating the field map and magnetic susceptibility in the spine, the liver and the breast.

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