Albert Hsiao1, Michael Lustig2, Marcus T. Alley1, Mark Murphy2, Shreyas S. Vasanawala1,3
1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States; 2Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States; 3Radiology, Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital, Stanford, CA, United States
We demonstrate the combined use of parallel imaging, Poisson-disc k-space sampling and compressed sensing reconstruction in 4D phase-contrast MRI. We show that flow measurements at the aortic and pulmonary valves are essentially identical with compressed sensing (L1-SPIRiT) and without (ARC), while markedly improving image quality and noise. We further show that flow measurements at the aortic and pulmonary valves correlate well with conventional 2D phase-contrast and calculated cardiac outputs from cine SSFP imaging. These results favor the use of the compressed-sensing, when available, to maximize image quality while preserving the quantitative accuracy of 4D phase-contrast technique.