Neuroimaging studies suggest that white matter and cognitive function changes were affected by breast cancer and its treatments. Our study interested in the early effect of the brain by chemotherapy. This study included 19 breast cancer survivors who had completed their chemotherapy and 20 healthy control group. Generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI) with voxel-based analysis was performed to show the brain structural differences between two groups. Multiple regression was also used to detect the correlation between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the indices of GQI. Our results provided further evidence that breast cancer and adjuvant chemotherapy are associated with adverse effects on white matter.