In this study, we aimed at comparing the coupling between neuronal activity and hemodynamic changes evoked by hindpaw stimulation, under medetomidine and isoflurane anesthesia. Simultaneous recordings of local field potentials (LFP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed in the rat somatosensory cortex. In a separate experiment, hemodynamic changes evoked by hindpaw stimulation were measured using BOLD fMRI. The coupling between LFP amplitude and CBF changes was similar between isoflurane and medetomidine anesthesia. However, BOLD signal changes were smaller under isoflurane compared with medetomidine anesthesia. This suggests that isoflurane anesthesia may alter BOLD signal through alteration of O2-consumption or O2-saturation.