Arterial stiffness is a common condition arising with aging and is associated with an elevated risk for white matter structural abnormalities in the brain. The goal of this study is to combine white matter sensitive techniques (DTI, MTsat) to better understand the impact of arterial stiffness on the white matter microstructure and cognitive health in healthy elderly. Results suggest that arterial stiffness is associated with axon degeneration rather than demyelination. Findings from this study also show that improved executive function performance correlates with white matter metrics. Controlling arterial stiffness might play a role in maintaining the health of white matter axons in the aging brain and thus prevent or slow cognitive decline.