Enhanced detection of glutamine (Gln) and glutamate (Glu) with 1H MRS using single voxel STEAM: their potential to stage brain tumors
Amans M, Guthikonda M, Barger G, Xuan Y, Zamorano L, Sehgal V, Hu J, Jiang Q, Hm-Meeran S
Wayne State University
Glutamine (Gln) and glutamate (Glu) levels are both directly and indirectly (via reactive oxygen species signaling) involved in tumor proliferation and apoptosis, and thus could provide useful information for tumor diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary results demonstrate a consistent and remarkable increase in both Gln concentration (using water as a reference) and Gln/Cr ratio. The results also suggest Gln/Glu could be an early indicator of malignant transformation compared to ""traditional"" 1H MRS markers such as NAA, Cho, and Cr.