Vadim Zotev1, Han Yuan1, Masaya Misaki1, Raquel Phillips1, Kymberly D. Young1, Jerzy Bodurka1, 2
1Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, United States; 2College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK, United States
We have conducted the first study in which EEG recordings were performed simultaneously with real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) to explore electrophysiological correlates of rtfMRI-nf training. Eleven MDD patients learned to self-regulate their left amygdala activation using rtfMRI-nf during a positive emotion induction task based on retrieval of happy autobiographical memories. We observed significant task-dependent increases in relative upper alpha EEG power that inversely correlated with fMRI activation levels of the amygdala. Our results suggest that increased cognitive effort, reflected by the changes in upper alpha EEG power, is associated with reduced efficiency of emotional self-regulation during rtfMRI-nf training.