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Abstract #4160

To Spoil or To Balance? A Comparison of the White Marker Phenomenon in Gradient Echo Pulse Sequences

Simon Rei 1 , Axel Joachim Krafft 1,2 , Klaus Dring 3 , Constantin von zur Mhlen 4 , and Michael Bock 1

1 Radiology - Medical Physics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2 German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg, Germany, 3 MaRVis Medical GmbH, Hannover, Germany, 4 Department of Cardiology and Angiology I, University Heart Center Freiburg, Germany

The white marker phenomenon has been proposed for passive localization in MR-guided interventions. A positive contrast of interventional devices is generated by dephasing background signal while preserving signal in the proximity of the device by unbalanced gradient schemes, and has been implemented in FLASH and bSSFP sequences. In this work, we compare these sequences to optimize the white marker signal of small platinum markers and an MR-compatible guidewire. Our results indicate that the bSSFP sequence is optimally suited to generate high contrast even for small paramagnetic objects which could be used for the localization of vascular scaffolds.

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