In utero T2-weighted (T2W) and diffusion MR images were acquired from control rhesus macaque fetuses at gestation days 85, 110, and 135. High-resolution T2W volumes and diffusion MR volumes were reconstructed using retrospective motion-correction techniques. Population-averaged T2W templates and fractional anisotropy (FA) templates were generated for each time point. Development of fetal tissue zones and gyrification of cerebral cortex were assessed using the T2W templates. In addition, morphogenesis of cortical neurons and maturation of white matter tracts were also characterized using the FA templates.