Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant public health problem. A major shortcoming limiting efforts to improve the treatment of SCI is the lack of quantifiable metrics on which to base clinical decisions. In current study, we have utilized diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) to more accurately differentiate and quantify axonal injury, demyelination, inflammation and edema/tissue loss. DBSI results suggest chronic SCI does result in axonal injury and edema/tissue loss at the level of the cerebral peduncle. These results demonstrated axons may be preserved rostral to the site of injury, and may provide some insight as to why some patients respond to more recent epidural stimulation even years out from injury.