To evaluate longitudinal neurochemical modulation induced by rTMS, we used ultra-short TE STEAM MRS. Glx, GABA and 15 other metabolites were measured using 3T MR equipment longitudinally and LCModel was used to calculate these concentrations quantitatively. QPS was employed as rTMS and left M1 was stimulated in each subject. Five healthy male volunteers participated in this study. The long-term depression intervention induced Glx increment, and the long-term potentiation intervention induced GABA decrement. The present results suggested a usefulness of the ultra-short TE STEAM MRS in evaluation of the longitudinal neurochemical modulation induced by rTMS.