The blood-gas exchange function and the pulmonary microstructure are generally affected by the lung inflation levels. Here We developed a new method Single Breath CSSR-DWI to simultaneously quantify the respiratory membrane and the pulmonary microstructure via hyperpolarized 129Xe in a single breath. A new parameter SVRd/g was defined from ADC and SVRd to characterize the ‘%-predicted dissolved SVR’. Human pulmonary functional and structure information were successfully obtained in a single breath via hyperpolarized 129Xe. Compared to the healthy young subjects, SVRd/g of the asymptomatic aged subjects decreases while the size of the pulmonary microstructure increases.